Are good readers born or is it taught skills? A recent study conducted by researchers at Florida State University examined differences in reading performance among identical and fraternal twins enrolled in first and second grade on reading performance. The identical twins tended to perform similarly on standardized measures, indicating that genetics play the largest role in determining early reading skills. However, 42 of the 280 pairs of identical twins demonstrated significant differences in reading levels. This finding provides evidence that early reading progress is not solely governed by genetics. Researchers found that quality of instruction is what led to the differences between identical twins. More specifically, the identical twin who received high quality instruction outperformed their sibling who had received mediocre instruction. While this finding makes sense, it has serious implications for early reading instruction and intervention for children experiencing reading difficulties. Most notably, although early reading skills appear to be largely genetic, quality of instruction can have a significant impact on reading development.